The extent of protected areas in the Arctic’s marine environment (Fig. 6) has almost quadrupled since 1980 (Fig. 7). In 2016, 4.7% of the Arctic marine area (860,000 km2) was protected, which, when considered at a pan-Arctic scale, falls short of the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 goal of 10% of coastal and marine areas to be protected by 2020 (Fig. 7). The marine protected areas are dominated by several very large areas and some parts of the Arctic marine ecosystem was poorly protected in 2016.
Figure 6: Marine protected areas in the Arctic classified according to their IUCN Management Category, 2016.
All but 8% of the 334 current marine protected areas found within the CAFF Boundary have been assigned
an IUCN Management Category. Protected areas falling in Category IV, Habitat/Species Management Areas,
cover the largest area overall. Figure 8 shows the percentage of protected areas in each IUCN Management
Category in 2016.
Figure 7: Trend in marine protected area coverage within the CAFF boundary, 1900-2016.
Figure 8: Distribution of marine protected areas across each of the six IUCN Management Categories, 2016.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Regional Center 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA, USA
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1. Scope and start work on development of guidelines for Ecosystem Approach to management (EA) in the Arctic.
2. Review status of work on developing and doing Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) to develop best practices for Arctic IEA.
Background: The Joint (PAME, AMAP, CAFF, SDWG) Ecosystem Approach expert group (EA-EG) has held 5 workshops in 2011-2015 on various aspects of development of EA to the management of Arctic marine ecosystems. A first International Conference on EA implementation in the Arctic was held in Fairbanks, Alaska, in August 2016.
The Joint EA-EG prepared a report on ‘Status of Implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to Management in the Arctic’ (download here) that was delivered through PAME to Senior Arctic Officials and Ministers. In the Fairbanks Declaration from the Ministerial meeting in May 2016, the ministers reaffirmed the need for an ecosystem approach to management in the Arctic, and encouraged future efforts to develop practical guidelines for implementing an ecosystem approach. The Joint EA-EG has developed a framework with six elements for implementing the EA in the Arctic.
The first element is to identify (geographically) the ecosystem to be managed, and this has been done through delineation of the Arctic marine environment into 18 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs-download here). Another key element of the framework is Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA), which is the step where the overall conditions and status of the ecosystem are assessed, including impacts (singular and cumulative) of human activities which take place or are planned in the given ecosystem.Carrying out an IEA is scientifically demanding, but is nevertheless essential for effective EA implementation.
The work at the 6th EA workshop will focus on two related subjects:
- Development of EA guidelines, as requested by the Arctic Council ministers1, and
- share and summarize information and experiences with integrated assessments of ecosystem status as a step toward developing best practices for Arctic IEA, for measuring trends and pressures for coastal and marine areas (which is a follow-up of EBM recommendation 3.5 from Kiruna in 2013).
1 Fairbanks Declaration (2017), paragraph 32: Reaffirm the need for an ecosystem approach to management in the Arctic, welcome the Status of Implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to Management in the Arctic Report, and encourage future efforts to develop practical guidelines for implementing an ecosystem approach.
The workshop was one in a MPA workshop series supporting PAME's work on studying best practices for linking area-based conservation measures to categories of Arctic marine biodiversity in support of the long-term conservation of the Arctic marine environment and associated services and cultural values. Key aspects of this collective work within the Arctic Council include ways to build and strengthen networks of MPAs in the context of climate change and ocean acidification, as well as incorporating traditional and local knowledge (TLK).
The aim of the workshop was to take stock of the current scientific understanding (including TLK) and identify important new research questions on MPA networks and how such networks, and other area-based measures, may be used to decrease the negative effects of climate change and ocean acidification and their interactions with other human induced stressors in the Arctic. The workshop also briefly touched on data availability related to these questions.
Outputs of the workshop will be published as:
- meeting report that aims to contribute to the scientific basis for the potential of MPAs to meet the threats posed to Arctic ecosystems and livelihoods, and
- a concise report card for targeted to decision makers and a wider audience.
|Name of presentation||Presenter||Download|
|SYKE - Finnish Environment Institute: Marine Research Center||Paula Kankaanpää||Download|
|How Arctic Marine Protected Area Networks may reduce negative effects of climate change & ocean acidification||Jessica Nilsson||Download|
|Arctic Climate Change||Michael Tjernström||Download|
|Acidification of the Arctic Ocean, the basis for AMAP Arctic Ocean Acidification case studies||Leif G. Anderson||Download|
|CBMP/ CAFF activities Update on work of relevance for PAME MPA work||Tom Christensen||Download|
|Ten-step recipe for creating and managing effective marine protected areas||Mark Carr||Download|
|Climate Change Report Cards - The Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership Experience and Arctic Possibilities||John Baxter and Dan Laffoley||Download|
|￼Protecting marine areas beneath Antarctic ice shelves: Special Areas for Scientific Study||Susie Grant||Download|
|￼ The Journey towards a Weddell Sea Marine Protected Area||Thomas Brey||Download|
|The Ross Sea Region MPA||George M. Watters||Download|
|Networks, platforms and the winds of change: MPA's and climate change in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM)||HELCOM||Download|
|Barents Sea MMBI Research Cruises||Gennady Matishov||Download|
|Radioactive contamination issues in the Arctic||Nadezhda Kasatkina||Download|